Telescopes were first invented in the seventeenth century, when people realized that the combination of a concave and a convex lenses can sharpen and brighten the angles of distant objects. The understanding of the optics was first developed in the tenth and eleventh centuries by the Moors, but that understanding was not put to use by anybody until the sixteen hundreds, when a couple of guys in the Netherlands created the first basic design. That design was further perfected by Galileo, who used it to study the moon, Jupiter, and other celestial bodies. That was a refracting telescope. The first reflecting models came along some years later, the best one designed by Isaac Newton himself. The reflecting type had mirrors instead of lenses of glass, and so had certain benefits over the refracting models.
The technology has come a very long way since then, and now anybody can own one. They aren’t even that expensive for smaller or weaker models, though you can own something that is much larger and quite a bit more powerful for a still reasonable cost. And of course, there are huge models that scientists used to study the far reaches of space, in order to learn more about stars, and the universe, and even the origins of the universe. There are also many different magazines and publications dedicated to these modern feats of science and wonderful pieces of technology, because they are so popular among amateur astronomers and so very necessary for professional scientists.
Ultraviolet telescopes view the ultraviolet spectrum dynamics that take effect outside of our world.
Space telescopes gather information and images for later research done by NASA and the European Space Agency.